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A pulsatile pneumatically driven neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation system using neck vessel cannulas tested with neonatal mock circulation

Trittenwein G, Burda G, Trittenwein H, Golej J, Hermon M, Pollak A.
University Children's Hospital, Vienna, Austria.

Artif Organs. 2001;25(1): 29-35

In posthypoxic circulatory failure, pulsatility of flow generated by mechanical support devices significantly influences outcome. Pneumatically driven assist devices can create highly pulsatile flow, but need large graft cannulas implanted by thoracotomy in children and neonates. Emergency application is therefore hindered. We conducted an in vitro study using neonatal mock circulation (NMC) to test whether an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) system driven by a commercially available pneumatic assist device also can be operated through commonly used neonatal neck vessel cannulas. Using the pneumatically operated Medos ventricular assist device (VAD) 10 ml ventricle along with the Jostra M8/HEC40 oxygenator/heat exchanger, a neonatal ECMO system was assembled and connected to the NMC by means of commercially available neonatal neck vessel cannulas. Effective ECMO flow, combined circulation flow, and circulation pressures were measured during various working settings (ventricle driving pressures [systolic/diastolic (mbar)]: low: +100/-25, moderate: +200/-50, high: +300/-99) and loading conditions (device working against 0, 50, and 100% native circulation flow). Additionally, maximum possible ECMO flow through various sizes of neonatal ECMO cannulas and resulting pressure gradients were assessed. High pressure settings were necessary to achieve 100 ml/kg/min pulsatile circulation flow in case of zero native circulation. With residual 30% native circulation flow, 100 ml/kg/min pulsatile circulation flow could be established by moderate pressure settings. Low preload or high systemic vascular resistance reduced ECMO flow markedly. We concluded that in the described setting a pneumatically driven neonatal ECMO system could be operated even through commonly used neonatal neck vessel cannulas. It was necessary to accept partial emptying of the artificial ventricle and tapering of driving pressures with increasing native circulation.

Обновлен: 27.06.05